How Far is Deep Space?

A comprehensive list of sources used in the making of How Far is Deep Space?

The following information is taken from the final page of the book:

The measurements in this book are indicative only. The heights or altitudes of many features or objects, natural or artificial, vary in time and due to a range of factors, including seasonal variations, when the measurement is taken and the latitude the measurement is made from. There can be considerable variation in the perihelion, aphelion and average measurements for any celestial body. Authoritative sources differ in the measurements they provide and these measurements are updated by these sources when new scientific information is made available. I have chosen the figures that best fit the story that I am telling in this book in ways that young readers will best understand and remember. Near the Earth I have often chosen maximum measures for natural phenomenon as they are often being compared on page to records achieved by humans or records for wildlife.
Numbers: As distances in space can be incomprehensibly large, along with the fact that most celestial objects are in constant motion, we have chosen to round figures for the benefit of the reader. The discrepancy in exactitude becomes more evident the further the reader moves away from Earth, as distances move into the millions and billions of kilometres. Rounding has been done to a maximum of two decimal places.
Atmospheric layers: Finding definitive figures regarding the layers of Earth’s atmosphere proved problematic. As mentioned in the text, the height and range of these layers can vary for a variety of reasons. For the sake of convenience we have chosen even numbered maximums (20, 50, 90, 600 and 10,000) as indicated by a variety of sources.
Artificial objects orbiting the Earth: For the sake of consistency, we have chosen to use the apogee distance of artificial objects that are orbiting/have orbited the Earth.
Planets: When calculating the distance of planets from Earth, we chose the semi-major axis figures as given by NASA on 25/04/14. As celestial bodies are in constant orbit around the Sun, and for the sake of the reader’s comprehension, we decided to place all planets and the Sun on a single, straight line in order to reach our final calculation.
Your weight on other planets: Measurements for this table were calculated at the following website on 04/08/14:

Below is a comprehensive list of sources that were used to make this book. These have been arranged by the measure of distance on the scale, which runs through the book on the right-hand side of the page:

10,898 m: Mariana TrenchNational Geographic
8605 m: Puerto Rico TrenchOceanário de Lisbon
7062 m: Deepest submersibleGlobal Times
3682 m: Ocean floorLive Science
1800 m deep – from the upper edge of the canyon: Grand CanyonBBC and Live Science
6.5 km: Lancaster Bomber – Mason, Tim (1998). The Secret Years: Flight Testing at Boscombe Down 1939–1945 
8.8 km: Mount Everest – Australian Geographic
11 km: Commercial aircraft cruising–height – Boeing, Wikipedia and Wikipedia
11.3 km: Rüppell’s griffon vulture – The Wilson Bulletin (Wilson Ornithological Society)
15.5 km: Highest manned glider – Perlan Project
20 km: End of Troposphere / Start of Stratosphere – NOAA
22 km: X-1 aircraft – NASA and Wikipedia
24 km: Lego-naut – The Guardian
27 km: Typical weather balloons – infoplease
30 km: Ozone layer – EPA and
39 km: Highest skydive –
41 km: End of Biosphere – Journal of Cosmology
BiosphereEncyclopaedia of Earth
50 km: End of Stratosphere / Start of Mesosphere – Windows to the Universe and NOAA
53 km: Highest unmanned balloon – JAXA
Atmospheres of EarthNOAA
80 km: Astronaut – NASA
90 km: End of Mesosphere / Start of Thermosphere – NASA
100 km: Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis – Northern Lights Centre and UNC
100 km: Kármán line / Outer space – i09
120 km: Mars ProbeNASA
Space and NASA
160 km: Beginning of Low Earth Orbit (LEO)Princeton
327 km: First person in spacePhysics Buzz
427 km: International Space Station (ISS)
442 km: Skylab Space StationHowstuffworks and Wikipedia
600 km: End of Thermosphere / Start of Exosphere – NASA and NOAA
610 km: Hubble Space Telescope (HST)NASA
1660 km: Furthest travelled by dogNASA
2000 km: End of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) / Start of Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) – Princeton and NASA
10,000 km: End of ExosphereNOAA
20,200 km: GPS
Medium Earth OrbitNASA
35,786 km: End of Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) / Start of High Earth Orbit (HEO)NASA
35,786 km: Communications satellitesPrinceton
High Earth OrbitNASA
50,000 km: End of MagnetosphereNASA
12 men on the MoonUniverse Today
324,600 km: Asteroid 2005
384,400 km: and Sky & Telescope
400,171 km: Furthest travelled by human
1.5M (million) km: Earth–Sun Lagrangian Point 1NASA
2.26M km: Lexell’s
8.98M km: 45P/Honda–Mrkos–Pajdušáková Comet –
Your weight on other
22.4M km: Halley’s
41.4M km: VenusNASA
78.30M km: Mars – NASA
78.30M km: Curiosity RoverNASA
91.70M km: Mercury – NASA
Astronomical Unit (AU)Universe Today
149.60M km:
225.70M km: Tempel 1NASA
299M km: Inner Edge of Main Asteroid BeltNASA
413M km:
Inner Solar SystemNASA and Wikipedia
596M km: Juno ProbeNASA
600M km: Outer Edge of Main Asteroid Belt / Start of Outer Solar System – NASA
Outer Solar SystemNASA and Wikipedia
629M km: Jupiter – NASA
1.28B (billion) km: Saturn – NASA
1.41B km: Cassini–Huygens ProbeNASA
2.72B km: Uranus – NASA
4.3B km: New Horizons ProbeNASA
4.35B km: Neptune – NASA
4.49B km: Outer Solar System / Inner Edge of Kuiper Belt – NASA
Kuiper BeltNASA
5.72B km: Pluto – NASA
12.56B km: Termination ShockNASA
Termination Shock – NASA
15.64B km: Voyager 2 Probe – NASA
18.1B km: Magnetic SuperhighwayWikipedia
19.1B km: Voyager 1 ProbeNASA
21.24B km: End of Heliosphere
Heliosphere – NASA

If you have any further questions about the book, please contact us at